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30                                        FLORA   INDICA.

that the number of known plants is swelled one-third beyond
its due extent, by the introduction of bad spoeies founded on
habit, and on accidental varieties produced by soil, exposure,
etc. This subject admits of classification under tvro heads, to
neither of which can we be expected to devote much spae* in
this Essay.

1. There are accidental variations due to no apparctit
causes or to very fluctuating ones, as colour of flowers and
leaves, odour, hairiness (to a great degree), development of
parts, strength of medicinal or other properties, hardness and
various properties of wood, and many others. 2. More per-
manent deviations that accompany change of locality, and at-
feut more or less all the individuals inhabiting a certain area :
these may often he traced to physical causen, and give rinc
to races and stocks, which arc more or less permanent umlei
cultivation and changed conditions, such a 'habit, hardiness,
and duration of life and of foliage (evergreen or deciduous),
predilection for certain soils and exposures, and other cha-
racters which arc more or less obviously induced by opera-
tions that have extended through a series of generations,

Gregarious plants, in all ntatcs, whether wild or cultivated,
and field-crops in particular, offb* excellent opportunities of
studying these phenomena. IN or arc these remark* appli-
cable to herbaceous or shrubby plants only : even in this conn-
try the variations of the recently introduced Deodar tire al-
ready attracting attention to the question of its specific diver*
sity from the Cedar of Lebanon and that of Nojrth Africa*,

* As regards the specific differences between tht* common Ccslitr <mtl
we think the question still open to discu*um, Wo have no timt opinion on
the subject, and in the present iucompleto state of our knowledge \vc rm>mmtwl
caution., The proBoinent difference strongly urged i* foumfoU on mort i.**.
that the scales of Cedar-cows are persistent and thorn* of tho Pmtor dtoculutm* j
the fact being that the Cedars tit Kow and dtawlwro tcmttw tlwir wwtiiili'fi
whenever a warm gunmcnr ripens llu>i*r wtxxl A to the diifvrvm'*'* of timing,
that of the Cecbur is ao try variable aa to tlurow nuspick> on thu vatit of thi<
olutracter j tuvl otluw tnv*, us \ve have elsewhere m*kl prwmjt iitmunisa UifftTf iuv\
Tlw odotw wul quttlity <>f itata-wowl vawit tuvonUtiff t t*if vin
wtoh the tm)s havt* txvu gtown. lvgtU uud colour f Ui>I,